Most common law countries impose no general duty to rescue another person, and therefore typically impose no liability for failing to do so. There are two exceptions to this: (a) people who create a hazardous situation, regardless of whether they did so negligently, are held to have a duty towards those they have imperiled; and (b) people who have “special relationships” with those to which they owe a duty of care, either through position or employment. Examples of these special relationships would be the duty of emergency workers to the public (e.g., firefighters, EMTs, etc.). However, non-emergency personnel can also have duties to rescue, most notably parents towards their children (or people acting in loco parentis, such as school teachers and babysitters), a spouse towards his or her partner, and a property owner towards people who are lawfully on their property (such as hoteliers to their guests). In the case of non-emergency workers, the duty to rescue is obviated should a rescuer’s own life be imperiled through the attempt. As of 2009, ten states had laws that required that third parties, at a minimum, notify law enforcement or seek to aid people in peril.